Market Driven Innovation

Market Driven Innovation (MDI) is designing, managing and implementing your innovation process based on the needs and wants from your key markets. MDI is not new, but still today, many companies have found it difficult to transform their innovation work from their entrenched technology and product forward approach they have been using to a market back approach. Often, their entire business processes have been built around their assets and products they produce and their go-to-market strategy based on their historical sales experiences. The result of this behavior is premature commoditization of their value propositions, their most important assets. Market Driven Innovation is based on a strict set of principles:

o Engineering/technical resourcing decisions are made based on a validated market need and an attractive business case.

o Organizational Focus is achieved from understanding market segments and targeting the most attractive segments for growth

o A cross-functional team approach, marketing, technical, and sales all contribute to the growth initiative together, and thus are aligned on the strategy:

o Accelerated ramp up after launch from a higher operational knowledge of the market

o Accelerated technology development because better design specifications from a segmented market

o Driven by business leaders who make resource allocation decisions consistent with the strategic direction of the business, and link development to marketing process.

Market Driven innovation begins with a business orientation towards specific and targeted markets. These markets define strategy which defines resource allocations especially those resources dedicated to the innovation process. In this context we define innovation as the creation of value, and Market Driven Innovation as placing emphasis on customer values, beginning with choices as how a business goes to market; to how they position their brand and products in those markets they proactively choose to serve; to the nature of their product improvements; and to their search for new products and services that may more effectively meeting the emerging future needs of their targeted markets.

Identifying these target markets is core to Market Driven Innovation. Understanding what drives market growth and major unmet needs of the key market players as well as how they define value and establish the basis for generating growth ideas and concepts – straight from the market. These ideas and concepts are the genesis of the innovation process. The more market back concepts, the more opportunities for successful growth. Knowing target markets enables a business to:

o Design, communicate, and deliver more robust value propositions aimed at specific market segments

o Capture more of the value we provide because they can measure the value and make strategic pricing decisions that are consistent with their marketing strategy.

o Apply resources more effectively where they bring value by focusing them only on where value is identified.

o Develop and bring new offerings to the market faster because they know what the market values and how to deliver their offering based on value.

o Evaluate new markets where they can bring more powerful value propositions and new offerings

These elements of business design when generated from a market back learning model, form the basis for a market driven organization, and more specifically, Market Driven Innovation as a core driver of your growth process:

o Provides business management with facts from direct contact with the marketplace to decide which concepts merit moving forward with resourcing.

o Balances depth and speed in this disciplined approach using an organized set of activities.

o Enables cross function teams to develop a common understanding, direction, and shared values throughout the innovation cycle

o Enhances chances of success

Voice of the Customer (VOC) captured early and operationally is an essential component of creating and delivering value with the growth process. Capturing VOC is not a trivial or casual activity, and well thought our and designed VOC is critical to Market Driven Innovation. Effective VOC requires:

o Learning Customers desired outcomes – what they want to happen to help them become more successful.

o Getting to Fact based and data driven information that can be translated into offering features that address the customer outcomes.

o Clearly identifies the benefits the customer will receive and thus the discrete value they will place on an effective solution to them.

o Must be well understood by both marketing and technical in the same way with an aligned sense of the relationship to strategy and core competencies.

VOC is the work you do and do well before you even think of applying technical resources to do product development work. In this regard, you don’t misuse valuable and limited technical capacity. Technical people need to focus on projects that have been market validated both to focus their limited resources and provide them with advanced market specifications that help accelerate the development cycle.

To this end, as we will discuss more later, you engage your technical resources along side of your Marketing people to co-learn VOC, and thus both are better prepared to do their work that is defined by your targeted markets. In this way our resources are aligned from day one of an innovation effort through to launch of a new offering. A key outcome of an aligned and shared approach is achieving success faster and at less overall cost. No wasted costs as a result of false starts and lingering stops.

The three key components or a successful change to market oriented MDI are:

o Creating The Right Mindset – Leaders set the agenda

o Building the necessary skill set – A common framework for implementing

o Providing the best toolset – Fact based information guides decisions

Incorporating all three into the business process is a requirement for successful transformation to a market driven organization. It’s as straight forward as knowing where you are going, how to get there, and a map to take you there. We will discuss each of these three success drivers in more detail below

Creating the right mindset

Leaders must take charge of the agenda beginning with examining and changing how they lead, what marketing and technical practitioners do differently, and most importantly, how they work together using a rigorous framework from concept selection through to offering commercialization. Leadership owns the MDI process highlighted below. The first two levels in the process, Concept Development/selection and Market Validation are the critical elements. In this model, Leadership does not resource technology development until sufficient market evidence and validation provides the basis for resourcing. Technology resources only work on market validated concepts. Leadership’s ownership of the process means they:

o Demonstrate the value and set expectation

o Focus and align the organization around strategic direction and core capabilities.

o Identify, and guide the performance requirements necessary to generate the profit results.

o Organize people to assure the right combination of organizational strengths are applied to both know and act effectively on markets.

Three crucial questions are answered in market validation and business case development:
1. Is there an external basis for believing the concept has sufficient value to the market to proceed?
2. What is the best validated value proposition that sets the design basis for development?
3. Can we make money from developing and commercializing this value proposition?

Building the Necessary Skillset

The Innovation provides the basis for skill development and tool utilization. Each element of the framework requires specific work designed to deliver decisions to move from one element to the other. A short description of the work elements are describe below.

Concept Development and selection: Developing and characterizing concepts (sometimes called the “Fuzzy Front End”). Idea generation methods are generally well-known and most work well enough to assure a good set of concepts to evaluate. What we uniquely require is a concept characterization approach that helps the evaluators better understand and choose among several concepts.

Market Validation: Once a project has been chartered, a decision (stage gate) is made to resource to development and includes four key components, validated market landscape; Value Proposition Development; Competitive Alternative Assessment; and Business Model Evaluation. A validated market landscape identifies and characterizes the market spaces in which the concept may bring value. In this context, it provides the basis for demand, and thus the first real attempt at generating revenue potential. It identifies the key specifiers and influencers, and begins to describe their unmet needs that the concept may address as well as key hurdles that must be overcome to have a successful and sustainable initiative.

The Value Proposition is a description of the value your concept will bring to the targeted market, the benefits the market will receive, and how you will get paid for bringing the value. Value proposition development is the holy grail of marketing. If you learn your value proposition, and it truly brings the market real value, you can build the remainder of your growth initiative around it. Value propositions must be measurable and actionable.

Business Case Development: Before you engage in developing the required technology, answer the questrion – “Can we make money on this value proposition?”. Market Driven Innovation often requires a new way to go to market to accelerate and maximize acceptance and value capture. Value adding chain analysis through to the end user is an important skillset to utilize for business model evaluation. Business models are defined by what customers are selected; how we capture value; our level of strategic control; and the scope of our value proposition. The Business Case should be determined as early in the innovation process as possible. Opportunity modeling can provide the necessary basis for understanding the top line potential and the marketing cost for the innovation.

Technical Development:Effective market validation provides the product developers/designers a clear and crisp basis for building in the necessary design elements into an innovation. We now know the needs (what the market is willing to pay for) and the wants (potential areas of uniqueness). No more starts and stops caused by changing specifications from learning on the fly. Product developers can utilize their best practices with the certainty that they are on the right track. Because we begin the development process with clear market understanding, we now can bring the key customers into the development cycle early and often. We know their testing protocols, and their current standards by the competitive alternative they are using today. We design, we test, we engage the customer to test, we upgrade. Active parallel processing accelerates the development process and we get to launch faster.

Commercial Launch: Preparing for the launch includes the short term developing the marketing entry plan and the marketing mix, and the longer term multigenerational planning. These should be done together since the longer term positioning could have an effect on the launch protocol. The launch plan includes the target market; the offering positioning based on the value proposition; the communications strategy and plan; the channel strategy and plan; the pricing strategy and implementation plan driven by long term optimal pricing decisions. Multigenerational planning (beyond the launch); includes second and third generation offerings; strategy mapping; and a revenue acceleration plan. The managing process and control plan are incorporated into the commercial launch to assure optimum demand creation and delivery

Providing a Useful toolset

The toolset necessary to enable Market Driven Innovation consists of an integrated qualitative and quantitative set that enables the Market Driven Innovation team to successfully address the critical market questions identified in their chartered project. Two interdependent approaches make up the composite of Voice of the Customer (Market Driven). Together, they are designed to answer all the questions necessary to progress through the innovation process defined earlier.

A qualitative market learning tool should be installed to translate concepts into possible value propositions, begin the segmentation process, define the industry structure and dynamics, and expose the relative value vs. competitive alternatives. It also provides the basis for design of the quantitative VOC that follows once a decision is made to proceed to the business case and technical development stages.

A quantitative instrument that captures: concept tests including value elements and price; attribute importance rankings and current performance ratings; outcomes rankings; feature benefits; and competitive ratings. Other pertinent information to assist in segmentation should also be incorporated.

Getting Started With Market Driven Innovation: Market Driven Innovation can either be installed inside a business unit which is structured with both a technical and marketing unit, or can be institutionalized within a corporation as “the way we innovate”. The initiation for each is different given both the breadth and depth the sponsors must address in the change process. It is simpler and much faster to initiate change in an organization that is both ready and organizationally integrated. The leadership can evolve the change live while doing their innovation work by starting with a few projects that are definitive and have a short horizon. As the teams demonstrate success the change process takes on a life of its own and becomes a natural new way of doing work. The basic framework for such an approach is:

o Leadership diagnostic to define both scope and level of change required. Many groups already have an external perspective to their work and thus, change becomes a reinforcement of their beliefs.

o Develop and agree on a project plan to install MDI.

o Training the leadership and team on MDI elements. Utilize one or two projects to exemplify throughout the training. Note: the idea here is just in time training. Teams are trained on each element then they experience the element and move forward to training and experience thought each stage of the process. Prevents training fatigue and accelerates progress towards commercialization

o Select and charter projects.

o Customize framework to fit organizational culture and existing operational approaches and language.

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Hair Styles Makeovers – See What You Can Do Now to Have a Fabulous Hair Style

How many times a week do you wake up and just hate the way your hair looks? Is your hair too frizzy, too dry? Is it too thick, too thin? Do you have a unappealing hair cut? Do you ever get compliments on the way your hair looks?

Don’t despair, because there is hope for your hair style. The options for changing or fixing your hair are many and whether you are willing to spend thousands of dollars or just a few dollars, there is something that you can do.

Some of the major hair problems are Damaged Hair, Frizzy Hair, Thinning Hair and Unflattering Hair Styles. There are quick, inexpensive fixes. See below for complete details:

Damaged Hair:

The easy fix for damaged hair is deep conditioning treatments. Ask your hair stylist for the best product for your hair, or take a trip down the hair products aisle at your local drugstore. If your hair is extremely damaged, you may want to start with a once weekly deep conditioning treatment. Wash your hair normal in the shower and towel dry. Apply the deep conditioner all over the hair and wrap the hair with plastic. The plastic helps to keep heat in and make your conditioner go to work. Leave the conditioner on for about 30 minutes.

Also, try to give your hair a rest from heat appliances such as curling irons and blow dryers, as well as chemical processing.

Frizzy Hair:

It seems that as you get older, your hair tends to get frizzier. The weather and humidity never help. The easy fix for frizzy hair is to use lots of conditioner every time you shampoo, and follow with a serum or balm that contains silicone. Some products work better than others and it may take some experimenting to find just the right product for your hair. Although flat ironing your hair can zap away the frizzies in just a few minutes, you should limit using the flat iron since you might be adding to the frizzy problem in the long run with repeated use of the iron.

Thinning Hair:

As more and more women are experiencing thinning hair, the hair products industry is developing more and more products to help with this issue. If you have serious thinning, you may want to visit a dermatologist for more treatment options. Find a good daily vitamin to take that is designed for hair and skin issues. Many of the hair loss products companies, like Nioxin sell a daily vitamin that is supposed to support hair growth.

Hair extensions offer a temporary solution to camouflage the thinning hair, but you must be very cautious about the type and method used as hair extensions have been known to cause even more thinning issues if not done properly.

Unflattering Hair Styles

If you are not happy with your hair style, then you may want to start over by evaluation your face shape. The shape of the face can really make or break a hair style. Knowing what you should have or shouldn’t have in a style can be crucial to the outcome. With the invention of hair style imaging software, you can do a little research before you get your hair cut. Some programs even allow for you to try on a hair style by uploading a picture of yourself. This software even works for checking out a color change.

In short, if you want to do something about your current hair style and feel lost, then you should know that there is hope out there and you could make just a small change to update your hair and grow to love it.

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Natural Skin Care Remedies – Make Your Skin Beautiful Naturally

What is the first thought you get when you hear the words “natural skin care remedies”? Do you think about things you can do at home to make your skin beautiful? Or do you associate it with natural skin care you can buy instead?

For me, natural skin care remedies include both things – face gymnastics to give yourself a little face lift without a knife daily, cosmetics you can make in your own kitchen, but also 100% natural, commercial skin care products.

There are as thousands of remedies there for all kinds of skin problems out there, but in this article I’d like to concentrate on the ones that slow down the signs of aging, that means the ones which smooth away wrinkles, tighten skin and make the skin look younger.

Believe me, I’ve done my research and I can say there are so many natural substances that are supposed to make your skin look youthful and smooth. Usually these substances need to be used on the skin in the form of a cream, or taken orally as a supplement.

Of course many foods in themselves are filled with vitamins and nutrients that can help your skin rejuvenate itself, but usually you’d need to eat impossible amounts of these foods to really get the benefits of the substances in them. Don’t get me wrong, I love to have a few tomatoes or strawberries a day, but there’s a limit a person can eat!

To really get a benefit of natural skin care remedies you’ll need to eat a good diet based on natural foods, but also use natural skin care, which you can buy or make yourself. If needed, you can complement the process with quality supplements, too.

Be careful when shopping for natural skin care products, though. There are so many product lines that claim to be natural, but really aren’t. Sure, the cream in the pretty tube has some olive oil, aloe vera or keratin in it, but just a little bit! If that’s not bad enough, many products are in fact based on mineral oil! Make sure you get a 100% natural product and not one with 10% or even 90% natural ingredients.

Get a cream based on natural glycerines instead. These kinds of creams, which are great for moisturizing, can be made at home, too. For an anti-aging effect you’ll need special ingredients and buying a cream might be a more viable option. Do your research and try a few brands, the good ones will have a money-back guarantee so there’s no risk for you.

If you’d like to know more about natural skin care and the products I recommend, please visit my website for more information.

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Business Finance Training and Effective Business Solutions

Business finance training refers to programs that teach individuals how to handle various financial duties. Finance training is similar to finance tips in that both help business owners make better monetary decisions, but training programs offer a more detailed explanation of finance strategies. Training programs vary in price and can be used by the owners and employees of a business.

The most basic business finance training provide information on budgeting, preparing financial statements, managing cash flow, strategizing, forecasting, improving performance, and applying basic procedures and concepts to more effectively manage a business. These programs are recommended for new business owners to help them understand standard business practices. Once these basic methods are mastered, more specific financial training may be looked into.

Advanced business finance training delves more deeply into a certain financial procedure or concept, usually at a higher cost than basic programs. Advanced programs may teach business owners how to set up effective business models, make decisions based on quantitative analysis, manage and control accounts, practice due diligence, measure productivity, and strategize concerning mergers and acquisitions.

Taking part in any kind of business finance training gives a business owner the resources to make more intelligent business decisions that result in increased productivity and profits. Many different types of courses are available either online or at a specified location. Some programs may even offer the option to train at the business. Taking into consideration the needs and abilities of a business is the key to finding the best business finance training.

A business finance solution generally refers to methods of funding and maintaining the finances of a business. Most solutions involve ways of obtaining working capital, but others also offer ways of protecting and increasing that capital.

To obtain working capital, business owners look to finance solutions that offer funding by several different means. The most common means are loans and financing. Asset-based loans use a business’s assets, such as inventory and equipment, as collateral. A business may also opt for a property loan in order to acquire commercial space. Invoice financing, such as factoring, involves liquidating or selling a business’s accounts receivables in exchange for quick funding. Some businesses look to trade financing to supply their inventory. The business will tell its financer the amount and cost of goods needed, and the financer will pay for the goods. The business then repays the amount financed over a specified period of time.

Most companies that provide business finance solutions also offer ways to protect and increase a business’s capital. Credit protection safeguards a business from daily risks, such as customers not paying on time, so that the business does not suffer incredible losses. This makes it much easier for the business to borrow money in the future, and it protects the balance sheet. A finance solution may also offer business insurance plans that increase the stability of a business. The most common types of business insurance are employee and public liability, car, property, and health insurance. These business finance solutions are designed to protect businesses against potential losses.

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How To Make Advertising Claims That Comply With FTC Laws!

Any business (and affiliates and marketers) that engages in interstate commerce will be subject to federal laws. Interstate marketing and advertising practices are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (“FTC”) under the FTC Act. Services and goods offered through the Internet are considered to be a “use in commerce” since the services are available to a national or global audience. The FTC regulates Internet advertising, marketing activities and sales to consumers as the watchdog agency. The same consumer protection laws that apply to commercial activities in other media apply to the Internet. Under Section 5 of the FTC Act, illegal advertising practices are categorized as either an unfair method of competition or an unfair or deceptive act or practice.

Any activity that is likely to cause consumer confusion as to source, sponsorship or affiliation of any good or service is essentially an “unfair” act or practice under the FTC Act. However, the real culprit for interstate businesses, affiliates and other Internet marketers is avoiding advertising claims which are unfair or deceptive. There is no hard definition of what practices are considered “unfair” or “deceptive,” under the FTC Act.

But, in the simplest terms, all advertisements:

must be truthful and not misleading;
must have evidence to back up any claims made in the ad; and
cannot be unfair.

Complying with FTC laws really boils down to a single standard that your advertisements or marketing practices will be judged under. This “standard” is known as ‘materially misleading.’ This is basically the crux of website advertising law and the standard by which all Internet claims and representations are measured to determine whether they are deceptive. Either an ad or claim is materially misleading, or it isn’t deceptive. This standard is defined by a series of guidelines, rules and policy statements published by the FTC. The FTC rules and guidelines illustrate what the FTC believes is illegal under the technical language of the FTC Act.

The principle guidelines on advertising are contained in the FTC’s Policy Statement on Deception. Under the FTC’s Statement, an advertisement or marketing practice is deceptive if there is a representation, omission of information or some other practice that is likely to mislead a reasonable consumer and which is likely to influence or otherwise “affect the consumer’s conduct or decision with regard to a product or service,” to that customer’s detriment.

In terms of Internet advertising, an unfair or deceptive act or trade practice is usually made by publishing a false advertisement. The Act specifically states that using a false advertisement in commerce is unlawful and doing so is also categorized as an unfair or deceptive act or practices. The term false advertisement means an advertisement, other than labeling, which is misleading in a material respect. As you can imagine, flat out lies about your products or services, or those that you promote or endorse, are going to be misleading and illegal. Simply stated, you cannot make any false claims. However, a claim can be misleading in many other ways and this is where most Internet businesses land into trouble.

If you don’t understand the nature of what is considered materially misleading, you could very easily violate FTC laws. You MUST understand all the ways a claim may mislead a consumer and you MUST know what is considered a claim or representation in the first place. This is really the key to understanding FTC laws. For instance, a claim can be literally true, but if it is only true in limited circumstances, or if it is subject to more than one interpretation, one of which is not true, or misleading in its overall effect, it is deceptive. I am going to take you through each element of an advertisement from the FTC’s point of view so you can master this understanding. Again, either you can pay an attorney to look at your specific ads, throw them up blind, or take the time to learn the fundamentals yourself.

A. Overall Context Matters

A claim can be suggested by the overall context of an advertisement. This means a representation or claim can be made or suggested by any “statement, word, design, device, sound, or any combination thereof”. In other words, the FTC won’t just look at the words of an advertisement by itself to determine if it is misleading. Other than the words of the ad, the name of the product, the nature of the product, any visual or audio depictions or symbolism can all provide the context to establish a claim. Even the website name or metatags can provide the context for a claim. The overall experience conveyed by viewing the ad in relation to the rest of the website sets the context for a particular claim.

The U.S. District Court, Third Circuit stated the FTC standard regarding context of an ad clearly. “The tendency of the advertising to deceive must be judged by viewing it as a whole, without emphasizing isolated words or phrases apart from their context.” Beneficial Corp. v. FTC (1976). Using illustrative pictures on your website to demonstrate the effectiveness or results of a product is a common example. Without stating some direct, express claim in words, these pictures would be just as effective in suggesting some claim to your visitors.

EXAMPLE: You operate a website called homesavers.com which offers loan modification and “foreclosure rescue” services. The title of your webpage is labeled as “save home” and your home page contains a picture of a “happy and relieved” couple sitting at a kitchen table looking at their laptop which shows homesavers.com on the screen. The website advertisements include a heading titled “Begin the process of saving your home now” and other claims of “if you act now, we can save your home.” Without any qualifying disclosures, the overall context of the website may imply that consumers can expect to save their homes by using homesavers.com.

B. Express and Implied Claims

If an ad makes either express or implied claims that are likely to be misleading without certain qualifying information, this information must be disclosed. You must determine which claims might need qualification and what information should be provided in a disclosure. The important thing to understand is the fact you can make an implied claim through your advertisement and that you cannot suggest any claim which you are not permitted to make expressly by law. An express claim is an obvious one. For example “This product will stop bullets from penetrating your body in an advertisement for a bullet proof vest. Similarly, the claim “removes every type of stain from your carpet” is an express claim that the advertised product will remove all stains from your carpet.

An implied claim is one made indirectly or by inference and causes the most problems for Internet advertisers.

EXAMPLE: In an ad about the innovative bullet proof vest, it claims the vest is “used by law enforcement officers and professional body guards.” Since the ad claims law officers and security professionals use the vest, it implies they use it to stop bullets. It may also imply reliability to the average consumer.

EXAMPLE: “2 out of 3 mechanics prefer mighty wrench to any other wrench on the market! Besides having to substantiate that 2 out of 3 mechanics prefer mighty wrench, this claim implies that the tool is adept at working on cars. This is an implied claim even though the ad does not expressly state that “mighty wrench” is suitable for cars.

EXAMPLE: In an advertisement for sprinting shoes, your website claims “Joe Sprinter wore these shoes during his Olympic 100 meter Gold medal run.” This implies that the shoes are made for, even particularly well-suited for, sprinting and running fast. This ad implies a particular quality about the shoe.

EXAMPLE: Your website sells household carpet cleaning products. You use an ad promoting your “wonder-clean” carpet cleaner, stating that it “removes the toughest household stains.” Directly below the ad, there are a series of illustrations depicting a dog standing on a carpet next to an obvious wet spot on the carpet and the product then being applied by a woman. Then, that same woman is depicted with a smile on her face and the wet spot has disappeared. The ad suggests that it removes dog stains from your carpet (maybe even common pet stains in general).

EXAMPLE: An ad claiming “experts agree our product beats our competitors hands down” probably implies that there is actual proof that most if not all experts have made such a proclamation.

C. Leaving Out Important Information

A claim can be misleading if relevant and material information is left out. An advertisement cannot leave out facts which are material in light of any claims made or material in light of how the customer will use the product under the conditions stated in the advertisement (or under ordinary conditions). If a claim is only true in limited circumstances or a benefit only applies sometimes, this must be disclosed.

EXAMPLE: In ad for revolutionary new speakers your sell from your discount stereo web store, your website boasts that the speakers “can achieve a 98% efficiency rating.” But, this rating cannot be done with every type of stereo receiver. In fact, a few different models of speakers can achieve the same rating, but only if they are used in conjunction with certain receivers. These are considered “high-end” receivers and are not common. Since the stereo receiver required is uncommon, this should be disclosed.

D. Material Claims

In order for a claim to be materially misleading, the claim or any information left out must be important or significant to the consumer’s choice to purchase the product or service. If the average consumer would not find the claim to have any significant influence on his or her decision to purchase, the claim is not material. The FTC has stated that examples of material claims include representations about health or safety, a product’s performance, features, price, effectiveness or other central characteristics. But, these are not the only types of claims which are material. Information is also likely to be material if it concerns durability, performance, warranties or quality. Information pertaining to a finding by another agency regarding the product may also be material.

The FTC presumes that express claims are material. As the Supreme Court stated recently, “in the absence of factors that would distort the decision to advertise, we may assume that the willingness of a business to promote its products reflects a belief that consumers are interested in the advertising.” Where the seller knew, or should have known, that an ordinary consumer would need any omitted information to evaluate the product or service, or that the claim was false, materiality will be presumed because the advertiser intended the information or omission to have an effect. Similarly, when evidence exists that a seller intended to make an implied claim, the FTC will infer the claim is material. The FTC might also look at other evidence that the claim or omission is likely to be considered important by consumers, such as testimony or customer surveys.

If a claim is material, it also means that injury is likely to exist because of the representation, omission, or practice. Injury to consumers can take many forms according to the FTC and it exists if consumers would have chosen differently but for the deception. If different choices are likely, the claim is material, and injury is likely as well. The statement on deception states that injury and materiality are different names for the same concept.

E. Substantiating Your Claims

Advertisers must have sufficient evidence to support any claims made, or the claims are deceptive. In order to avoid deception, you must have a “reasonable basis” for any factual or objective claims you make in any advertisement. (FTC vs. Pfizer, Inc. (1972)). This is also referred to as the doctrine of “substantiation.” This reasonable basis must be based on objective, credible and reliable evidence. You can use surveys, statistical evidence (studies) and expert opinions to substantiate any claim you make and otherwise prove a claim is true.

If the advertising claim suggests a level of support, it is obvious that the advertiser must have evidence of that support. For example, if a marketer claims that “three out of four customers prefer our brand”, then the marketer must have reliable survey evidence backing this statement up. If an advertiser claims “clinical studies show,” the FTC requires that clinical studies must show what you claim.Where a claim is not specific, the FTC will look at a number of factors in reviewing substantiating evidence to determine whether there is a reasonable basis for the claim including: 1) The type of claim; 2) The product involved; 3) The consequences of a false claim and the benefits of a truthful claim; 4) The cost of developing substantiation and 5) The level of substantiation experts would believe is reasonable.

EXAMPLE: A website that sells energy drinks and related energy products makes clams that its products give its customers energy lasting “all day” or “gets you through your work day.” Those claims need to be true and need to be backed up by an actual clinical study showing that the drink or other products boost energy levels for the duration specified.

The FTC will look at a number of factors to help determine the appropriate amount and type of substantiation necessary, including:

The Type of Product. Health and safety claims are subject to the most scrutiny by the FTC as they pose the most risks to consumers. Also, alcohol and tobacco are particularly put under the microscope along with dietary and herbal supplements, weight loss products and nutrient claims since these are related to health. These types of claims require competent, credible and reliable scientific evidence. I discuss scientific evidence in much more detail under the discussion of substantiating health claims.

The Type of Claim. Technical claims and claims that consumers would have trouble or cannot possibly evaluate themselves are subject to much more scrutiny. For instance, “reduces your energy costs by 30%” “kills germs on contact” or “environment friendly” are claims consumers cannot easily substantiate on their own. As a matter of policy, when consumers can easily evaluate the product or service this has historically attracted less FTC attention than those claims that consumers would have difficulty evaluating directly, such as “e-cigarettes contain none of the harmful ingredients of tobacco cigarettes.” Also, if a product is inexpensive and it is frequently purchased, the FTC will examine the practice closely before issuing a complaint based on deception. According to the FTC’s view, there is little incentive for sellers to misrepresent in these circumstances since they normally would seek to encourage repeat purchases.

General Results Claims

Stating that your products will deliver certain results may also be misleading. You must be able to substantiate any results you claim. If you make any specific claims of product results, you must also disclose that the product will not deliver the same results to everyone and may not even be effective for some purchasers, unless this is absolutely the case. Of course, if you can substantiate that the product would achieve the results claimed in each circumstance of use for all purchasers, you don’t have to worry.

For instance, a website that instructs businesses on how to establish and build a good business credit rating and makes the following claims on its website: “Instantly obtain multiple credit lines” and “establish a top credit rating fast.” How about a website offering SEO services that claims “our customers usually see double the traffic within 2 months.” These are results based claims. If the average client is not likely to achieve these results, you should disclose these facts. Otherwise, these ads may be misleading and thus deceptive.

If your business is offering a new product, then you can’t make a general results claim if no data on the results exists. As burdensome has this seems, the FTC’s comments on the matter of substantiating claims are pretty clear. I get a ton of questions on this issue. Section 5 of the FTC Act requires advertisers to have substantiation for the messages that consumers reasonably take from their ads, which means they must first know what messages consumers take away from those ads.

F. Reasonable Consumer Standard

The FTC will always evaluate any advertisement from the point of view of the “reasonable consumer.” This basically means looking at how the average reasonable person would interpret or respond to any claims or representations you make. Your business will not be liable for every interpretation or response by a consumer. This is actually a fairly well-stated principle in the context of advertising. Advertisers are not liable for every possible misrepresentation, no matter how outlandish. Misconceptions occurring among the foolish or feeble-minded are not reasonable.

The FTC provides the example that all “Danish pastry” is made in Denmark. The fact that some unreasonable individuals may believe that all Danish pastry is actually made in Denmark is not reasonable and does not cause liability to the advertiser. A claim is not deceptive only because it will be unreasonably misunderstood by an insignificant and unrepresentative segment of people.

When representations or sales practices are targeted to a specific audience, the FTC will look at how a reasonable member of that specific group would interpret the claim. For instance, terminally ill consumers might be particularly susceptible to exaggerated cure claims, children would likely believe claims adults would not, claims toward the elderly may be viewed by differently than the general public, etc. Similarly, “claims directed to a well-educated group, such as a prescription drug advertisement to doctors, would be judged in light of the knowledge and sophistication of that group”(FTC Policy Statement on Deception).

In addition, part of the reasonable consumer standard means that an ad may be capable of more than one reasonable interpretation by a consumer. So, if your ad conveys more than one meaning, or is interpreted differently and that meaning is misleading, you will be liable. This is true even if the main meaning of the ad is not deceptive. The critical question is determining what overall impression consumers would take away from a given ad when looking at the ad as a whole.

G. Subjective Claims, Opinions & Puffing

The FTC generally will not bring advertising complaints based on subjective claims that consumers can judge for themselves (i.e. claims based on taste, feel, appearance or smell), opinions or obvious exaggeration or puffing. For example, if a seasoning salt boasts on its website that the product is “delicious” or an ad claims a particular candle “smells great” these are general subjective claims regarding the taste and smell of the products. Stating a product has a “handsomely finished exterior” or comes complete with an “attractive carrying case” are examples of subjective opinions. Just because not everyone might find the exterior of the product in question handsome or that the carrying case is attractive does not make the ad deceptive.

Since these types of claims don’t pose risks to health or safety even if they were deceptive, they really are not scrutinized by the FTC anyways.

Similarly, a product endorsement that proclaims the product to be “the best product I ever used” is a subjective opinion. The claim is not a statement of fact or some claim about some result, quality or characteristic of the product. In general, if the claim is a subjective one and does not contain an objective component, it is not unlawful.

In contrast, claiming a product is superior based “on all the latest research and data” is not subjective any longer. It’s misleading if the product really is not superior based on the most recent research and data. Claiming a flashlight “outlasts all other major brands” or “more customers prefer our hand lotion to any other” is an objective claim which must be supported with some credible evidence of what is claimed. Opinions are deceptive only “if they are not honestly held, if they misrepresent the qualifications of the holder or the basis of his opinion or if the recipient reasonably interprets them as implied statements of fact”.

Advertisements involving obvious exaggeration or puffing are not unlawful. These are claims that the reasonable consumer would not believe. For example, claiming a child’s wooden sled that is “handcrafted by Santa’s elves” is obvious exaggeration, or claims that a product is “superior” to all others is a general statement and is puffing. Vague statements such as “the breakthrough the Industry has been waiting for” or “this could be the opportunity of a lifetime” are also examples of puffing and are lawful. These statements are really more in the nature of boasting than making an actual factual claim.

EXAMPLE: American Italian Pasta Co. vs. New World Pasta Co. (2004). The court stated that in order for a claim to be false, it must be “a specific and measureable claim capable of being proved false.” The Court in this example found that American Italian Pasta Co.’s use of the phrase “America’s favorite pasta” was not a statement of fact, but was considered subjective and vague puffing. This case provided a very good definition of what is considered puffing: “puffing is exaggerated statements or boasting upon which no reasonable person would rely or vague and highly subjective claims of product superiority.”

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Finance, Credit, Investments – Economical Categories

Scientific works in the theories of finances and credit, according to the specification of the research object, are characterized to be many-sided and many-leveled.

The definition of totality of the economical relations formed in the process of formation, distribution and usage of finances, as money sources is widely spread. For example, in “the general theory of finances” there are two definitions of finances:

1) “…Finances reflect economical relations, formation of the funds of money sources, in the process of distribution and redistribution of national receipts according to the distribution and usage”. This definition is given relatively to the conditions of Capitalism, when cash-commodity relations gain universal character;

2) “Finances represent the formation of centralized ad decentralized money sources, economical relations relatively with the distribution and usage, which serve for fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and also provision of the conditions of the widened further production”. This definition is brought without showing the environment of its action. We share partly such explanation of finances and think expedient to make some specification.

First, finances overcome the bounds of distribution and redistribution service of the national income, though it is a basic foundation of finances. Also, formation and usage of the depreciation fund which is the part of financial domain, belongs not to the distribution and redistribution of the national income (of newly formed value during a year), but to the distribution of already developed value.

This latest first appears to be a part of value of main industrial funds, later it is moved to the cost price of a ready product (that is to the value too) and after its realization, and it is set the depression fund. Its source is taken into account before hand as a depression kind in the consistence of the ready products cost price.

Second, main goal of finances is much wider then “fulfillment of the state functions and obligations and provision of conditions for the widened further production”. Finances exist on the state level and also on the manufactures and branches’ level too, and in such conditions, when the most part of the manufactures are not state.

V. M. Rodionova has a different position about this subject: “real formation of the financial resources begins on the stage of distribution, when the value is realized and concrete economical forms of the realized value are separated from the consistence of the profit”. V. M. Rodionova makes an accent of finances, as distributing relations, when D. S. Moliakov underlines industrial foundation of finances. Though both of them give quite substantiate discussion of finances, as a system of formation, distribution and usage of the funds of money sources, that comes out of the following definition of the finances: “financial cash relations, which forms in the process of distribution and redistribution of the partial value of the national wealth and total social product, is related with the subjects of the economy and formation and usage of the state cash incomes and savings in the widened further production, in the material stimulation of the workers for satisfaction of the society social and other requests”.

In the manuals of the political economy we meet with the following definitions of finances:
“Finances of the socialistic state represent economical (cash) relations, with the help of which, in the way of planned distribution of the incomes and savings the funds of money sources of the state and socialistic manufactures are formed for guaranteeing the growth of the production, rising the material and cultural level of the people and for satisfying other general society requests”.
“The system of creation and usage of necessary funds of cash resources for guarantying socialistic widened further production represent exactly the finances of the socialistic society. And the totality of economical relations arisen between state, manufactures and organizations, branches, regions and separate citizen according to the movement of cash funds make financial relations”.
As we’ve seen, definitions of finances made by financiers and political economists do not differ greatly.
In every discussed position there are:

1) expression of essence and phenomenon in the definition of finances;

2) the definition of finances, as the system of the creation and usage of funds of cash sources on the level of phenomenon.

3) Distribution of finances as social product and the value of national income, definition of the distributions planned character, main goals of the economy and economical relations, for servicing of which it is used.

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Europe Travel Packages – Suit One to Your Interest

Looking for a great place for vacation with family? Europe is one lovely continent where everyone has an ample number and variety to choose from according to their interest. However, this can also confuse the travellers since they may not be able to decide as where to go and what all to skip. For this, there are numerous pre-set Europe travel packages which are available to the tourists to choose from.

These travel packages which are available to tourists for holiday are prepared keeping in mind the general interest and preference of the tourists. For those who have an interest in history, the places and destinations which have a high historical importance are included in the packages and thereby suit the tourists. Also, for those who have an interest in architecture, such people can take up a package which is prepared keeping in mind architectural wonders of the continent of Europe. Out of these Europe travel packages, the tourists can easily choose one and enjoy the best trip according to their interest.

The Europe travel packages that are pre-set and defined are also done considering the budget that a traveller has. Also, keeping in mind a time frame too, the packages can be obtained. Proper planning by online tour planners, tour guides for Europe etc precede the making of the package for the travellers which thereby suit their needs well.

Complete care of the travellers is taken. Europe travel package includes all the facilities for the travellers. Whether it is hotel booking, flight reservation, sight seeing, taxi bookings etc, all is done beforehand through the package organiser itself. Prior booking also helps in saving money of the travellers.

With Europe travel packages available to the tourists easily, they can make a readymade choice which suits their needs. This way they can have a great holiday and at the same time, stick to a proper budget as well as time frame.

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Adventure Holidays in India

India is a land of contrasts with diverse languages, ethnic groups, religions and traditions. Immerse yourself in the teaming bazaars, holy cities and Moghul forts. See a wide array of wildlife with 500 species of animals including tiger, leopard, elephant, and rhino, 200 species and sub-species of birds and 30,000 insect species.

High Himalayas, dark deep woods, Great Indian Desert, and an extensive coastline make India a formidable destination for those who are always up for dares and challenges. Adventure Holidays in India are rigorous and intense. You can opt for India Luxury Tours with sufficient number of adventure activities planned throughout the itinerary or go for more unusual travel experiences that qualify for off-the-beaten track adventure trips in India.

Jungle safaris on an elephant’s back along Tiger Trails in some of the best known National Parks and Tiger Reserves of India might be more popular but you might love to go for adrenaline-pumping motorbike safaris on a Royal Enfield or ‘Bullet’ as it is popularly known in India. Hot air ballooning, para-gliding, heli-skiing, zip-lining over the ancient Neemrana Fort are just some of the various fun activities you can opt for during your India Adventure Tours.

Bicycle tours along the countryside in South India are highly recommended if you want to experience real India first-hand. An option to stay and dine with traditional Indian families in their homes allows you to mingle with the locals and know more about their culture and lifestyle. Riding an elephant back like a King or Queen to the Amber Fort in Jaipur, Rajasthan is fun while Horse Safaris with descendants of erstwhile royals to rural Rajasthan or high-altitude trails in Himalayas are once-in-a-lifetime experiences you will cherish forever.

It takes some time to get used to the wobbly strides of a Camel, the Ship of the Desert and the most popular form of transport to more remote areas of Rajasthan. Yak Ride in Ladakh is another unusual activity you might want to try. There are endless options for Bird watching Tours and Wildlife Adventure Tours throughout India and each region has its own flavor with unique climatic and geological conditions, amazing biodiversity, and rare and endangered species of flora and fauna endemic to that region.

Those who are more active may perhaps want to go for more rigorous options of mountaineering, rock climbing, trekking, skiing, white river rafting, rappelling, bungee jumping, cliff jumping, snorkeling and deep sea diving. There is no dearth of adventure in India. The vastness of the country offers such diversity of landscapes and geology that it just takes a little imagination to come up with a personalized tour itinerary that keep entire group of vacationers happy for any length of time.

Fun-filled nights in Goa, known for its tropical beaches and music, serve as a happy break to foreign tourists from America and Europe who feel more at home there. The early Portuguese domination in Goa followed by the British rule has lent an European feel to the entire region. You will find a number of swanky churches here too.

Romantic houseboat cruises in Kerala backwaters many not make blood rush to your ears but they are highly recommended for couples visiting the country. The quaint beauty of thick forests casting their emerald green reflection in the channels and waterways look especially beautiful at sunrise. Bird songs, and fishes and amphibians (not found anywhere else in the world) that you encounter during Kerala houseboat cruises provide a perfect epilogue to your delightful adventure tours in
India.
Adventure holidays are becoming the choice of today’s traveler. India offers wide opportunities in this field because of its rich and varied climates. In northern India, one could experience trekking, mountaineering, gliding, paragliding and many other adventure activities in snow covered peaks of Himachal and Uttaranchal. In Rajasthan, adventure has a different face. You can experience the heat of desert and sand dunes while on Camel Safaries or Jeep safaris. South India offers water sporting opportunities like boat race, water sports and much more.

If you love wildlife, you can take experience the beauty in dense forest among wild animals in wildlife safaris, jungle safaris and jeep safaris of Uttaranchal and Karnataka. Uttaranchal, the land of holy rivers and there origins offers White water rafting and is hub for various other adventure sports activities like trekking, river rafting and wildlife safari. Garhwal offers some very exciting opportunities for the water sport lover. The Ganga with its frothing and foaming waters throw up a challenge that no rafter on this earth can look away from. The rivers in Uttaranchal are said to offer the best rafting opportunities in world. The hills of North India have all the ingredients for exploit packed with thrills – an unexplored valley, towering peaks, flowing rivers, a splendid combination of flora & fauna, snow-capped mountains and vast tracts of virgin snow.

Karanataka, another state in India unfolds its many surprises that seem to have been created just for the adventure holidays seekers and nature lovers. Verdant forest, unexplored hill ranges and deep blue water are peculiar features which describes adventurous tours in Karanataka in the form of Rock climbing, Aerosports, Water Sports, White water Rafting, coracling, canoeing, kayaking and windsurfing.

The beauty of Kashmir attracts many tourists to this “Paradise on Earth”. Apart from the enthusiastic nature lovers, the high peaks of the Himalayas attract thousands of adventure sports lovers to the state. Adventure holidays in Kashmir are increasingly attracting Indian and overseas lovers of the outdoors.

Kashmir is one of the major attractions for the tourists for enjoying holidays. A range of options exist in the valley for the adventure loving visitors. There are some places in the valley where the adventure sports facilities are available like Gulmarg, Sonmarg, Pahalgam, Drass, etc. The mountain ranges as well as the gushing rivers of the valley provide abundant opportunities for adventure travel in Kashmir.

Other states of India are also encouraging adventure tours and tourism and several adventure tour parks and camps are being organized for a traveler seeking adventure tours.

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Waterless Cooking

Have you heard of the waterless cooking method? It is a relatively new method of cooking that has many advantages. In the past, a lot of household cooking has involved cooking food with water. When cooked in water, however, a lot of the food’s nutritional value, not to mention the flavor, is taken away. Waterless cooking allows you to cook food in it own juices, retaining all the vitamins and minerals as well as most of the original flavor. There is no need to add water to foods (especially vegetables) because the natural moisture in the food is released and the steam created helps the cooking process. The steam is circulated throughout the pot and falls back into the food allowing it to stay moist and juicy.

So what are the advantages to waterless cooking? First of all, it is an easy way to cook. Many times you can use a one-pan cooking method so that all the food (meat, veggies and potatoes) is cooked together. This also allows for easier clean up with only one pan to wash up. And the new waterless cookware, with its superior heat distribution, tends to have less chance of food burning or sticking.

Waterless cooking also tends to cook food a lot faster. With the new waterless cookware available now the heat is evenly distributed along the bottom of the pot or pan. Because of this, there are no ‘hot-spots’ that may tend to burn your food. The lid of the pot forms a seal, which locks in the heat (as well as the moisture) so the cooking time is decreased.

As mentioned, waterless cooking is a healthy way to cook. None of the nutrients are lost during cooking, and you don’t need to add oil to stop the food from sticking to the pan, which also makes it healthier. The natural color and texture of the food is also retained which makes the food more appealing. Foods that are supposed to be crisp tend to keep their crunchy texture as well.

The features of waterless cookware that allow this cooking method to work include a flat bottom on the pots and pans which allow the most efficient means of heat transfer. The flat bottom connects with your stove element better, whether it be the coils of an electric stove or a gas unit, so that the heat transfer is more efficient. The cookware also has an iron core and an aluminum or copper base plate built into it that helps to retain a continuous, constant cooking temperature even after the heating element has been turned off.

Waterless cookware is typically made of high-grade stainless steel, which is better than other traditional pans in a couple of different ways. The stainless steel does not allow the taste of the metal to transfer to your food, as may be the case with aluminum or Teflon-coated cookware. Some companies use surgical stainless steel, which is the highest grade you can get for a real quality product. The stainless steel is easy to clean, durable (enabling it to last an extremely long time) and it allows you to keep your cookware sterilized.

One of the main features of waterless cookware is the special lid that keeps the natural moisture in the food from escaping. The lid forms a seal with the pot and lets the natural juices form into steam so the food cooks in its own natural juices, retaining all the nutrients and original flavors. There is a steam valve that whistles and tells you when you should turn off the heat (once the juices have created sufficient steam). In this way you save energy when cooking and the food is always cooked at a constant temperature.

Although it is referred to as waterless cooking, one thing you should do before cooking with this method is to rinse your food in water and then drain it before cooking. This ensures there will be enough water clinging to the food to create enough steam, mixed with foods natural juices, to cook it properly.

Cooking times with the waterless cooking method is generally a little less than traditional cooking times, depending on personal tastes for doneness. You should always cook your food at medium to low temperatures because the special waterless cookware construction allows the unit to conduct heat in the most efficient manner. You must also resist the urge to lift the lid during the cooking process as this will lengthen the cooking time and may even allow the food to dry out when the steam escapes.

The steam valve will tell you when you should turn off your stove element-when the correct temperature has been reached to allow the food to cook itself. When the steam valve whistles, turn off your stove, but do not lift the lid until the specified cooking time has elapsed-then you can open the lid and serve out your hot food. As a tip, put warm water into the unit after the food has been removed and let it sit while you eat so clean-up will be a snap afterwards.

Most recipes can be adapted (with a few alterations) to using the waterless cooking method as well. You will discover that old favorites will taste better and new recipes will be simple to master. The waterless cooking method is a new and healthier way to cook. It is more energy efficient, allows the food to retain its own juices, texture and color, and is an easy way to cook.

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Endometriosis – How to Treat Endometriosis With Vitamins

Endometriosis which grow somewhere else other than the endometrium also reacts to hormonal signals of the monthly menstrual cycle by building up tissue, breaking it, and eliminating it through the menstrual period. As we know, nutritional supplements play a very important role in treating endometriosis. In this article, we will discuss how vitamins help to treat endometriosis.

A. Vitamin A
I. Definition
Vitamin A is a bi-polar molecule formed by bonds between carbon and hydrogen. It is a fat soluble vitamin. This means it can not be stored in the liver but it can be converted from beta-carotene, a powerful antioxidant. Besides helping in treating endometriosis, it is also known to have strong effects in improving vision and enhancing bone growth.

II. Vitamin A and endometriosis
a) Vitamin A is a very powerful antioxidant that not only helps to strengthen the immune system, but also protects against the growth of endometriosis.

b) Vitamin A helps in regulating the gene expression by fighting against the forming of free radicals and protecting the body organs from abnormal growth of endometrial implants and adhesion.

c) Red blood cell production
Vitamin A working together with iron helps to aid the production of red blood cells and improve the oxygen level in the circulation of blood which is necessary for the body’s cells. This results in a stronger immune system as well as protecting the forming of abnormal cells.

d) Working together with Zinc
Zinc deficiency interferes with
a) Vitamin A function of protein synthesis and fatty acid metabolism.
b) Reducing the activity of enzyme that release vitamin A palmitate from the liver causing a weakened immune system fighting against the forming of free radicals, and endometrial implants, and adhesion.

e) Work together with iron
Iron is necessary for production of red blood cells that carry oxygen in the blood stream for the body’s cells. Women who have endometriosis with heavy blood loss during menstruation normally have iron deficiency because of loss of iron which is far greater than what the body can produce leading to anemia. Intake of vitamin A and iron will increase the production of red blood cells far better than taking iron supplements alone.
Remember, overloading on zinc or iron is toxic to our body. Please make sure to talk to your doctor for the correct amount.

B. Vitamin B1
I. Definition
Vitamin B1 is one of the members of the vitamin B complex, it is also known as thiamin or thiamine. It’s most common form is a colorless chemical compound with the formula C12H17N4OS. It was discovered in 1910 by Umetaro Suzuki in Japan. It is a water soluble vitamin, therefore it can be stored in the body and is required to be taken regularly.

II. How Vitamin B1 benefits women with endometriosis
Women with endometriosis are found to have vitamin B complex deficiency during the menstrual cycle. It is not known if it is caused by unhealthy diet or the inability of digestive absorption.
a) Level of estrogen
Vitamin B1 helps to detoxify the liver which may be caused by intake of of alcohol, smoking and heavy metals. A strong liver is particularly important for secretion of cholesterol in breaking down estrogen that causes menstrual cramps as well as hormone balancing in the body.

b) Immune system
Vitamin B1 is an antioxidant that helps to strengthen the immune system against the forming of free radicals, endometrial implants, and adhesion somewhere else in the body except the endometrium.

c) Red blood cells
Study shows that vitamin B1 helps to normalize the activity of an enzyme called transketolase in red blood cells resulting in increased amounts of the two proteins THTR-1 and RFC-1 which helps to transport thiamine into red blood cells. This increases the production of red blood cells in the bloodstream.

d) Nervous system
It helps to reduce tension of the nervous system as a resulting of converting carbohydrates to energy which is necessary for the proper functions of the nervous system. Thereby it reduces symptoms of endometriosis in some women such as anxiety, depression, and mood swings.

e) Intestine muscle tone
Vitamin B1 helps to secrete hydrochloric acid in the stomach which is essential for the complete digestion of food particles and decreases the risk of nutrient deficiency causing hormone imbalance in the menstrual cycle.

C. Vitamin B2
I. Definition
Vitamin B2 is water soluble, also known as riboflavin. It has a chemical compound formula of C17H20N4O6. Like many other vitamin B complexes, it plays an important role in providing energy to our body by the metabolism of fat, carbohydrates and protein.

II. How vitamin B2 helps to treat endometriosis
1. Red blood cell formation
Vitamin B2 includes the active co-enzyme forms of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) that helps to transport vitamin b2 into the red blood cell as well as maintaining the red blood cell formation.

2. Strengthens the immune system
Vitamin B2 is an antioxidant that helps to rejuvenate the immune system caused by toxins accumulated in the liver that helps to maintain our body’s function fighting against any abnormality of cell growth including abnormal endometrial cells.

3. Cell growth
Since vitamin B2 helps in protein metabolism, it helps to maintain normal cell division or cell growth which decreases the risk of cell abnormality and prevent endometrial cells to grow somewhere else in the body excluding the endometrium.

4. Iron and vitamin B6
Vitamin B2 is needed for a healthy mucus membrane in the digestive system. It enhances the absorption of iron and vitamin B6 which is essential for women with endometriosis and heavy flow during menstruation.

5. Migraine
The Riboflavin that is found in Vitamin B2 has shown beneficial results by assisting in decreasing the time as well as the frequency in which one gets a migraine headache due to symptoms of endometriosis during menstruation.

6. Nervous system
Vitamin B2 can assist with alleviating stress as well as reducing symptoms of depression that are brought on by digestive disorders that generally affects women with endometriosis during the menstrual cycle.

D. Vitamin B3

I. Definition
Vitamin B3 , also known as niacin, is a water-soluble vitamin. Besides being usedto treat pellagra caused by dietary lack of vitamin B3 and protein, it also has been known to be effective in treating endometriosis because women with endometriosis are found to have vitamin B3 deficiency. It has a chemical compound formula of C6H5NO2.

II. How vitamin B3 helps in treating endometriosis
1. Hormone synthesis
Vitamin B3 is found to help the manufacturing of hormones such as cortisone and the sex hormone estrogen in a woman’s body. Besides helping to inhibit levels of bad estrogen that causes menstrual cramps during menstrual cycle, it also helps to balance the prostaglandin hormone which causes over-active uterine muscles.

2. Digestive system
Deficiency of vitamin B3 is generally found in women with endometriosis during menstruation. It may be caused by the inability of the digestive system in breaking down food particles. Intake of vitamin B3 helps to re-balance the hormones that cause menstrual cramps.

3. Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Besides helping to provide energy for our body in metabolism of carbohydrate through bile secretion, vitamin B3 also helps in the metabolism of protein and fat which are important for our body’s function.

4. Circulatory stimulation
Vitamin B3 also helps in stimulation of the circulatory system by reducing the level of bad cholesterol (LDL) from the arteries in some people.

5. Nervous system
Vitamin B3 is important for the healthy activity of the nervous system by providing the metabolism of protein and fat which are nutrients necessary for brain cells resulting in reduced symptoms of endometriosis such as depression, anxiety, and irritation.

6. Inflammation
Vitamin B3 increases the level of prostaglandins hormones which control the physiologic processes of blood clotting and inflammation.

E. Vitamin B5
I. Definition
Vitamin B5 is also known as pantothenic acid. It plays an important role in the forming of co-enzyme A and is critical in the metabolism and synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and fat. Vitamin B5 has a chemical structure formula of C9H17NO5.

II. How vitamin B5 helps in treating endometriosis
Most women with endometriosis were found to have low levels of vitamin B5 during the menstrual cycle for what ever reason. Without enough vitamin B5 in a woman’s body, it causes:
1. A weakened immune system
Since vitamin B5 is necessary in the metabolism of carbohydrates, it helps to generate energy for our body’s cells. Without enough levels of vitamin B5, our body’s immune system is weakened and is dangerous for the forming of free radicals and cell abnormalities.

2. Poor circulation
Our liver is the first line of defense by secreting bile into the digestive system to produce good cholesterol, which helps to inhibit the bad cholesterol in the arteries. Without enough vitamin B5, bad cholesterol is left unchecked causing difficulty for blood circulation.

3. Increased risk of over-active uterine muscles
Liver helps in metabolism of fat. Without enough vitamin B5, it causes hormone imbalance in the prostaglandins family leading to over-reaction of uterine muscles which in turn causes abdominal pain.

4. Increased tension of nervous system
Fat and protein are important for nourishing the cells in the nervous system. Low levels of vitamin B5 weakens the brain cell’s function. This leads to symptoms of endometriosis such as anxiety, mood swings, and depression.

5. Increased risk of allergic reaction
Insufficient vitamin B5 in our body causes deficiency in co-enzyme A which is necessary for our body to react to sudden substances that enter our body, causing violently allergic reactions.

6. Acne
Fatty acid metabolism becomes less efficient and the individual is more prone to have acne.

7. Hormonal imbalance
Besides helping to reduce acne, vitamin B5 also interacts with other members of the vitamin B complex by increasing the function of the adrenal glands which is necessary to balance hormones and promote normal growth of the body.

F. Vitamin B6
I.Definition
Vitamin B6 is water soluble and a member of vitamin B complex. It plays an important role in amino acids metabolism that helps to maintain the proper function in our body.

II. Endometriosis and Vitamin B6
1. Hormone balancing
Vitamin B6 is essential for the production of the right levels of prostaglandins hormones in the prostaglandins family. Deficiency of vitamin B6 causes over active uterine muscles resulting in endometrial cramps.

2. Estrogen inhibitor
Vitamin B6 helps the live in protein and fat metabolism, thereby increasing the production of good estrogen that inhibits the bad estrogen produced by the body resulting in hormone re balancing and decrease the risk of cell abnormality and cancer.

3. Anemia
Vitamin B6 increases the production of red blood cells that usually are depleted for the women with the heavy menstrual flow during menstruation.

4. Nervous system
Our nervous system requires variety of nutrients to function daily, vitamin B6 helps not only maintain a right levels of cholesterol but also increase the circulation of nutrients to our nervous system needed resulting in decreasing the symptoms of endometriosis, such as memory loss, confusion and anxiety.

5. Cell Growth
Vitamin B6 aids in the synthesis of DNA and RNA by maintaining the proper cell division and preventing cell abnormal growth such as peritoneal cells developing into endometrial cells.

G. Vitamin B12

I. Definition
Vitamin B12 is a water soluble vitamin and a member of vitamin B complex. It plays an important role in treating women with endometriosis, such as reducing symptoms of endometriosis during menstrual cycle, maintaining protein and fat metabolism, avoiding iron deficiency, etc.

II. Endometriosis and vitamin B12
1. Anemia
Women with endometriosis are found to have low levels of vitamin B12 during menstrual cycle for what ever reason. Deficiency of Vitamin B12 deceases the production of red blood cell in the blood stream causing depletion of levels of iron in the blood leading to anemia.

2. Nervous system
Vitamin B12 is vital for protein and fat synthesis that helps to strengthen the function of nervous system resulting in lessening the nervous tension such as irritation, loss of memory, depression and mood swing.

3. Insomnia and fatigue
Besides helping in protein and fat synthesis, vitamin B12 also play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism that helps to provide energy for our body function and aids in insomnia and fatigue.

4. Immune system
Liver required vitamin B12 to function properly, deficiency of vitamin B12 causes enlarged liver resulting in decreasing the function of liver in fighting against environment toxins leading to high levels of bad estrogen in the body resulting in menstrual cramps for women with endometriosis.

5. Cell abnormality
Vitamin B12 is vital for the synthesis of DNA. Deficiency of vitamin B12 increases the risk of abnormal cell growth in the body such as endometrial cells growing somewhere else in the abdomen.

H. Biotin
I. Definition
Biotin is one of the members of the vitamin B complex. It is also known as vitamin H or B7. Vitamin B7 is a co-factor in the metabolism of fatty acids, leucine, and in gluconeogenesis. It has a chemical structure formula of C10H16N2O3S. Deficiency is extremely rare, as intestinal bacteria generally produce an excess of the body’s daily requirement but for what ever reason, women with endometriosis are found to have low levels of biotin.

II. How biotin helps in treating endometriosis
1. Cell abnormality
Biotin acts as a co-factor with the other members in the vitamin B complex. It plays an important role in managing the body’s cell growth. Without enough biotin, it causes cell growth abnormality such as the forming of perinatal cells into endometrial cell in the abdominal regions.

2. Poor blood circulation
Since biotin helps in gluconeogenesis, it regulates the sugar levels in the blood stream. Without enough levels of biotin, the level of blood sugar rises causing the thickening of blood which reduces the circulatory function and blocks the transportation of nutrients and oxygen to our body’s cells. This results in an increased risk of symptoms of endometriosis.

3. Endometrial cramps
Since biotin is necessary in the metabolism of fatty acids, it helps to maintain levels of prostaglandins. Deficiency of biotin causes some members in the prostaglandins family to be over-produced during the menstrual cycle leading to menstrual and endometrial cramps.

4. Respiratory problem
Since biotin helps to synthesize carbon dioxide, without enough biotin it causes shortness of breath in women with endometriosis.

5. Risk of heart disease and stroke
If the liver cannot produce enough bile to generate good cholesterol because of not enough amounts of biotin in the body, it leads to cholesterol building up in the arteries causing the thickening of the arterial wall and the blockage o circulation of blood resulting in an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

6. Weaken function of nervous system
Since biotin acts as a co-factor with other vitamin B complexes in the metabolism of protein, deficiency of biotin interferes with that process. It weakens the normal functions of cells in the nervous system leading to tension of the nervous system such as anxiety, dizziness, loss of memory, and depression.

I. Folic Acids
I. Definition
Folic acid is one of the members of the vitamin B complex family and is a water soluble vitamin. It also known as vitamin M or folacin. It’s major function is to maintain normal growth and DNA of our body’s cells. It has a chemical structure formula of C19H19N7O6.

II. How folic acids helps in treating endometriosis
1. Anemia
Since folic acid deficiency limits cell division, women with endometriosis with heavy blood flow during menstruation are required to take enough folic acid to help in production of red blood cell. If not, it will lead to megaloblastic anemia.

2. Cell abnormality
Since folic acid is necessary for cell division, deficiency of it will lead to abnormality of some cells in the body. Some endometrial cells may become cancerous or grow into endometrial cells in the abdomen.

3. Protein synthesis
Folic acids interact with other members of the vitamin B complex family in the metabolism of protein. This helps to provide nutrients to the cells in the nervous system. Deficiency of folic acids cause the weakening of the nervous system leading to symptoms of endometriosis.

4. Abnormal cell growth
Folic acid is essential to normal DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell division. Deficiency of folic acid interferes with cell production and cannot repair the damage of cell caused by toxin accumulated in the body leading to abnormal cell growth.

5. Heart disease and stroke
Deficiency of folic acid may help to decrease the circulating level of homocytesteine in the blood. Study shows that high levels of homocysteine in the bloodstream damages coronary arteries or makes it easier for blood clotting, resulting in an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

6. Endometrial cancer
Since we already know that adequate levels of folic acid helps in the synthesis, repair, and functioning of DNA. Deficiency of folic acid may result in damage to DNA that may lead to cancer.

J. Choline
I. Definition
Choline is a water soluble vitamin and belongs to the group of vitamin B complexes. It was discovered by Andreas Strecker in 1864. It is used in traditional medicine in treating heart and liver disease caused by choline deficiency.

II. How choline helps in treating endometriosis
1. Strengthens the immune system
Deficiency of choline causes fat to be deposited into the liver and reduce the function of liver to fight against the abnormal forming of endometrial implants and adhesion in other parts of the body causing inflammation.

2. Reduce risk of heart diseases
Women with endometriosis are found to have low levels of choline during their menstrual cycle. The causes of deficiency are still unknown. Choline interacts with other members in the vitamin B complex family to help in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism which are necessary to provide energy and nutrients for our body. It also helps help to strengthen the liver in bile production, which helps to reduce the level of bad cholesterol resulting in decreasing the risk of heart diseases.

3. Increase function of nervous system
Since choline is a chemical precursor needed to produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, it helps to enhance the various congestion systems within the brain resulting in an improved function of the nervous system leading to reduced symptoms of endometriosis such as memory loss, poor concentration, anxiety, and mood swings.

4. Balancing hormone
Deficiency of choline causes abnormal functions of the liver. Since the liver plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism, deficiency of choline weakens the liver function resulting in excessive estrogen produced during menstrual cycle leading to hormone imbalance and endometrial cramps.

K. Vitamin C
I. Definition
Vitamin C is also known as L-ascorbate. It is a water soluble vitamin with a chemical structure formula of C6H6O6. It cannot be stored in the body for more than 24 hours and we are required to take it regularly. It is also best known for it’s antioxidant property in strengthening the immune system.

II. Vitamin C and endometriosis
1. Immune system
Vitamin C plays an important role in strengthening the immune system because of it’s powerful antioxidant property. It helps to guard our body against the forming of free radicals and abnormal growth of endometrial cells in other parts of the body.

2. Increase absorption of digestive system
Most women with endometriosis are found to have deficiency of some kinds of vitamins and minerals such as vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, and magnesium. Increasing intake of vitamin C not only helps to improve digestive absorption, but also increases the body’s function in fighting against all kinds of diseases including endometriosis.

3. Hormone balancing
Besides helping strengthen the liver function to balance the estrogen level during menstrual cycle, vitamin C also balances the level of prostaglandins hormones in the prostaglandins family resulting in the calming of over-active uterine muscles.

4. Reduce heavy blood flow and blood clotting
Vitamin C not only helps to protect the breaking off of the capillaries that cause heavy blood flow for women with endometriosis during menstruation but also prevents blood clotting caused by reduction of prothrombin, thrombin, and thrombokinase concentrations in the body.

5. Decrease infection and inflammation
Vitamin C helps in protein metabolism. It not only provides our body with certain necessary proteins but also blocks the synthesis of vital proteins that cause infection and inflammation.

L. Vitamin E
I. Definition
Since vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin, it can be stored in our body and we don’t require to take it regularly. It is best known for its powerful antioxidant property.

II. The effects of Vitamin E in women with Endometriosis
a) Immune system
Since vitamin E is an antioxidant, it helps to increase liver function in fighting the forming of free radicals, abnormal cells and cancers. In endometriosis, it prevents the growth of abnormal endometrial to form implants and adhesion in other parts of the body excluding the endometrium.

b) Cell protection
Since vitamin E protects the fatty acid against degradation in the human body, it helps to prevent against the oxidation in cell membranes and cellular regions resulting in protecting against the breaking off of the capillary wall causing heavy blood flow during menstruation.

c) Red blood cells
Deficiency of vitamin E in women with endometriosis were also found to have anemia. It is caused by the faster than normal aging of red blood cells because of oxidative destruction of red blood cells.

d) Nervous system
Since we already known that vitamin E is essential for increasing the ability of red blood cells to carry oxygen in the circulation system, it helps to nourish the brain cells fighting against symptoms of endometriosis such as mood swings, anxiety, and depression.

e) Hormone imbalance
Deficiency of vitamin E also interferes with normal functions of thyroid and pituitary glands causing the increase of levels of fatty acids resulting in endometrial menstrual cramps which in turn result in the over-production of certain prostaglandins hormones.

M. Vitamin K

I. Definition
Vitamin K was first discovered by Danish scientist Herrik Dam in 1929. It is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is best known for its ability of protein synthesis and blood coagulation. Dietary deficiency is extremely rare because it is produced by bacteria in the digestive system. Since it is fat soluble, it can be stored in our body and we do no need to take them regularly.

II. How vitamin K effects women with endometriosis
1. Nervous and circulation systems
Vitamin K helps to convert glucose into glycogen which is essential for improving the liver function in fighting against the forming of bad cholesterol accumulated in the blood stream causing high blood pressure, making transportation of oxygen more difficult to the body’s cell, increasing the risk of heart disease and elevating tensions of nervous system. Glycogen can be stored in the liver, muscles, and can be used in case of deficiency.

2. Abnormal bleeding
Vitamin K also helps in production of prothrombin which is an important substance for blood clotting. Women with endometriosis were found to have vitamin K deficiency leading to heavier than normal bleeding during menstruation.

3. Immune system
Since vitamin K helps to strengthen the liver’s function, indirectly it protects our body from environmental toxins that cause abnormal endometrial implants and adhesion growing somewhere else other than the endometrium as we mentioned in the other articles.

4. Cell Growth
Vitamin K is also said to be an important vitamin that helps to regulate the cellular functions including cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and protection against the cell’s cytoskeleton to break up the membrane and bulge outward causing the loss of membrane asymmetry and attachment. Deficiency of vitamin K may cause an increase in the risk of irregularity cellular growth, such as endometriosis.

5. Anemia
Since vitamin K deficiency causes heavy bleeding for women with endometriosis adhered to the abdominal region leading to anemia as a result of depletion of red blood cells in the body or inability of the body to produce more red blood cell to cover the loss during menstruation

Since endometriosis is treatable and manageable by natural remedies and a self help course, if you have endometroisis, please look on the bright side.

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